India’s push to become digital and cashless economy is commendable this initiative brought citizen much closer to the government and easing the model of e-governance, it has not only government to render services to its citizen but also it is very easy to get feedback or grievances and monitor them at all level effectively. And to maintain this facility with improvement it is necessary to develop adequate infrastructure and technology advancement. India is 7th largest country in the world with approximate 3.287 million KM² and approx. 1.3 billion population which constituted approx. 416 people per KM² and approx. 17.76% of global population. (source: – India Population. (2019-04-02). Retrieved 2019-05-06, from http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/india) India is developing country, and it has numerus of challenge and obstacles to tackle, like poverty, health education, equal right of protection under law and so on. Government can function more efficiently when communication to their citizens are efficient. And digitization is no doubt is playing vital role to bridge the communication gap between government and its citizen directly. It has not only enhanced government to citizens communication but also inter-government communication. so, technology advancement is crucial. To maintaining this pace and strengthening internet connectivity is just one of series of this advancement. Several companies have already expressed their interest and indicated to rollout 5G services in India very soon. But every coin has two sides, and in this case if this new launch has tremendous potential and advantages but also has some disadvantages. Let us further discuss and try to analysis its pros as well as cons.
5G and evolution of wireless mobile communication
G in 5G stands for “Generation” and the number before it count its generation, the bigger number the more advanced and strong it is
1G: a start of wireless phone revolution
Remember analog handheld phone, way back in the day, right? wireless phone started with 1G during 1980s. 1G is an analog technology and the phone usually has bad battery life and the quality of the sound was large without much security, and sometimes dropped calls will be experienced. The maximum speed of 1G is 2.4 kbps
2G: Voice with SMS, MMS
Advancing from 1G to 2G, the cell phone got its first major upgrade. This jump took place in Finland in 1991 for the first time on GSM network and effectively took the cell phone from analog to digital. 2G telephone technology introduced data services like call and text encryption, SMS, picture messaging and MMS. Although 2G has been replaced by 1G and is overwhelmed by the techniques described below, it is still used worldwide. The maximum speed of 2G with a normal packet radio service (GPRS) is 50 kbps or 1 mbps, with increased data rates for GSM development (EDGE). Prior to the major leap on 2G to 3G wireless networks, the less-known 2.5G and 2.75G was an interim standard, which started a new packet switching technique, which prevented the difference of 2.5G, which we used earlier Were more skilled than people. It led 2.75G, which provides a theoretical three times the capacity increase. 2.75G with EDGE began with GSM network (AT & T being the first) in the US.
3G: More Speedy Data! Video Calling & Mobile Internet
The 3G network was introduced in 1998 and stood in the series for the next generation; third generation. 3G started faster data-transmission speeds so that you can use your cell phone with more data-demanding methods like video calling and mobile internet. Like 2G, 3G developed in 3.5g and 3.75g because more features were introduced to bring about 4G. The maximum speed of 3G is estimated to be about 2 Mbps for non-moving devices and 384 bps in moving vehicles. Theoretical maximum speed for HSPA + is 21.6 Mbps.
4G: or LTE
The fourth generation of the network is called 4G, which was released in 2008. It supports mobile web access such as 3G, but supports gaming services, HD mobile TVs, video conferencing, 3D TVs and other things that demand high speed. With the implementation of 4G, some 3G features are removed, such as spread spectrum radio technology; Others are added to the high bit rate due to smart antennas. When the device runs, the maximum speed of 4G networks is 100 Mbps or 1 Gbps for low mobility communication, such as stability or walking.
Should 5G launch?
“5G is a generation currently under development. It denotes the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the current 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. NGMN Alliance or Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance define 5G network requirements as”:
“1 Gbit/s to be offered, simultaneously to tens of workers on the same office floor.
Several hundreds of thousands of simultaneous connections to be supported for massive sensor deployments.
Spectral efficiency should be significantly enhanced compared to 4G.
Coverage should be improved.
Signalling efficiency enhanced.
Latency should be significantly reduced compared to LTE
Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance feel that 5G should be rolled out by 2020 to meet business and consumer demands. In addition to simply providing faster speeds, they predict that 5G networks will also need to meet the needs of new use-cases such as the Internet of Things as well as broadcast-like services and lifeline communications in times of disaster”.
More detail›› [quoted from Wikipedia]
Problem with 5G
According to DW.com published on 5G, the latest generation of mobile communications will employ high frequencies and bandwidth, which enables users to move wireless data faster (at a rate of 10Gbit per second) faster than the old cellphone standards.
The last ‘G’ network has used frequencies between 700 MHz and 6 GHz. The 5G network will work on the frequency between 28 and 100 GHz. To keep it in perspective: 4G is 10 times faster than 3G. It is expected that it will be 1,000 times faster than the 5G 4G.
With the inability to travel great distance or to pass through objects, the short length of millimeter waves used in 5G need to be strengthened through an average of 150 meters (500 ft) average booster antennas.
In addition to the mobile phone towers already engaged in rural and urban areas, the need to increase the frequency level for the 5G network is soon posted on street signs, street lights and even post boxes (if they still exist). Booster can see antennas. To ensure a stable connection to users
Further, approximately 250 scientists from around the world recently signed a petition by the United Nations and World Health Organization under their concerns that “cellular and cordless phones [2G, 3G and 4G networks] … and broadcast Antennas, “Other radio frequency can be included in emitting devices. They produce the risk of cancer due to electromagnetic field (EMF) radio waves.
The appeal states: “Increased risk of cancer in the effects, cellular stress, increase in harmful free radicals, genetic damage, structural and functional changes of reproductive system, lack of learning and memory, nerve disorders, and general welfare in humans. Includes negative effects. ” At all levels, surviving organisms, scientists have added, are affected by the contact of electromagnetic fields produced by smartphone devices and transmission towers.
“Damage is not limited to humans because there is increasing evidence of harmful effects in both plant and animal life.” More Detail››
Hindustan times reported [May 13, 2017] that In 2011, the International Agency for Research on the World Health Organization’s cancer has classified EMF radiation as “possibly carcinogenic”. It has been said in the report that there was limited evidence to support that there could be glioma in contact with radiation, a type of cancer arising in the brain or spine. Acoustic Neuromas, a slow-growing tumor that develops from the inner ear to the brain, from the inner ear to the brain. Read more››
cancer.org concluded in an article that There is no test to measure whether you are in contact with RF radiation from the cellular phone tower. But as mentioned above, most researchers and regulatory authorities do not believe cell phone towers create health risks under normal circumstances. If you have additional health concerns, you may want to talk to your doctor.
Read in detail on: cancer.org››
The Government of India has noticed these concerns and initiated transparency and launched a website Tarangsanchar.gov.in to help check the radiation level in your area.